IMMEDIATE FIRST AID
for bites by
Antinorii's Black Mamba
(Dendroaspis polylepis antinorii)
In the event of an actual or probable bite from an Antinori's Black Mamba,
execute the following first aid measures without delay.
- Make sure that the responsible snake or snakes have been appropriately and
safely contained, and are out of danger of inflicting any additional bites.
- Immediately call for transportation.
- Keep the victim calm and reassured. Allow him or her to lie flat and
avoid as much movement as possible. If possible, allow the bitten limb to
rest at a level lower than the victim's heart.
- Immediately wrap a large crepe bandage snugly around the bitten limb
starting at the site of the bite and working proximally up the limb (the full
length if possible). The bandage should be as tight as one might bind a
sprained ankle. (See attached copy from "First Aid for Snakebite", by Dr.
- Secure the splint to the bandaged limb to keep the limb as rigid and
unmoving as possible. Avoid bending or moving the limb excessively while
applying the splint.
- DO NOT remove the splint or bandages until the victim has reached the
hospital and is receiving Antivenom.
- Have the South African Institute for Medical Research (S.A.I.M.R.)
Polyvalent Antivenom ready for the emergency crew to take with the victim to
the hospital. Give them the following:
- the available antivenom (at least 10 - 20 vials)
- the accompanying instruction (Protocol) packet
- the victim's medical packet (if available)
DO NOT cut or incise the bite site
DO NOT apply ice to the bite site
Summary for Human Bite
Antinori's Black Mamba
(Dendroaspis polylepis antinorii)
The bite of the Antinori's Black Mamba with envenomation can be rapidly fatal
(as early as 30 to 120 minutes). Please read the attached Medical Management
Protocol and respond appropriately.
- First Aid:
- Bandage and Immobilize the bitten limb with crepe bandages and splint as
described in the Immediate First Aid section. Rest this extremity below the
level of the patient's heart (if practical).
- Transport to a medical center emergency or trauma service.
- Medical Management:
- Call your local Poison Control Center or the San Diego Regional Poison
Control Center (800 876-4766). They should locate a consultant to help you
treat this patient.
- Observe for Signs and Symptoms of Envenomation.
- If signs or symptoms are present, perform the following:
- Administer Lactated Ringers Solution at 200 to 250 mls per hour.
- Draw samples and collect initial laboratory data.
- Withdraw the contents of 4 vials of South African Institute for Medical
research (S.A.I.M.R.) Polyvalent Antivenom. Administer the antivenom I.V.
piggyback at a rate of 1 vial (10 mls) per minute.
- Remove the splints and crepe bandage slowly over a period of 10 minutes.
If symptoms progress rapidly, reapply the bandage, and administer an additional
4 vials. Again attempt to remove the bandage.
- Allergic or untoward reactions to the antivenom should be treated with
Corticosteroids, Epinephrine, Benadryl, Atarax and/or Antihistamines as
- Monitor Signs, Symptoms, and Laboratory data, and administer additional
antivenom in 1 vial increments at a rate of 1 vial (10 mls) per 5 minutes as
necessary to control the progression of symptoms.
- The required amount of antivenom will vary with the severity of
envenomation. One should anticipate using (including the initial dose):
4-6 vials total for a minor bite with envenomation.
8-20 vials or more may be necessary for moderate or severe bites.
for bites by
Antinori's Black Mamba
(Dendroaspis polylepis antinorii)
This person has received a bite and probable envenomation from an Antinori's
Black Mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis antinorii). This is an extremely venomous,
aggressive, rapidly moving scrub and tree dwelling snake indigenous to
Ethiopia, the Somali Republic and adjacent areas of northeastern Africa.
Antinori's Black Mamba and the more southern race, the common Black Mamba
(Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis) are considered to be the most dangerous of
the mambas, and are responsible for many snake bite fatalities. Envenomation
signifies a true medical emergency.
In this particular species, envenomation usually presents predominately with
systemic neurologic manifestations. Drowsiness, neurological and neuromuscular
symptoms may develop early; paralysis, ventilatory failure or death often ensue
Please read and execute the following procedures without delay.
- A crepe bandage and splint have been applied as immediate first aid
adjuncts to retard the absorption of the venom. DO NOT remove the bandage or
splint until the patient has arrived at the hospital and is receiving the
- Make sure that at least 10 vials of South African Institute for Medical
Research (S.A.I.M.R) Polyvalent Antivenom are present with the patient. This
antivenom contains the appropriate fractions necessary to neutralize
Antinori's Black Mamba venom.
- If the patient has been envenomated, the treatment is 4 to 20 vials of
intravenous antivenom. Envenomation is diagnosed by the presence of
characteristic signs and symptoms. Necessary information follows and is
organized in sections:
- Signs and Symptoms of Envenomation
- Medical Management
- General Considerations
- Special Considerations
Signs and Symptoms of Envenomation:
- Neurological and Neuromuscular: These signs and symptoms will usually
manifest earliest. Not all signs and symptoms will necessarily develop, even
with severe envenomation.
- Respiratory paralysis or Dyspnea
- Excessive salivation (Oral secretions may become profuse and thick)
- Sudden loss of consciousness
- Paresthesias and Dysesthesias
- Palatal paralysis
- Glossopharyngeal paralysis or Dysphagia
- Limb paralysis
- Head drooping (Cervical muscle paresis or paralysis) Headache
- Local pain or numbness around bite site (tends to be mild)
- General: These symptoms typically manifest within thirty minutes to four
hours following the bite if envenomation occurred.
- Abdominal Pain (may be severe)
- Nausea and Vomiting
- Regional lymphadenopathy and Lymphadenalgia
- Flushing of the face
- Warm skin
- Increased Sweating
- Nephrotoxicity: Acute Renal Failure has been reported in a few cases of
Black Mamba bites in humans as well as in animal models. Oliguria or Anuria
with possible changes in urinary composition will herald the development of
renal shutdown. Dialysis is advised.
- Cardiotoxicity: Changes in cardiovascular status result primarily from the
effects of Circulatory Collapse and Shock, as well as vagal blockade resulting
in Tachydysrhythmias. Pulse and pressure may initially be within normal
limits, but may change with rapid onset cardiovascular collapse.
- Local Symptoms: Local tissue damage appears to be relatively infrequent
and of minor severity in most cases of Black Mamba envenomation. Edema is
- Fang Marks: Fang marks may be present as one or more well-defined
punctures, as a series of small lacerations or scratches, or there may not be
any noticeable or obvious markings where the bite occurred. The absence of
fang marks does not preclude the possibility of a bite (especially if a
juvenile snake is involved). In general, the fang marks from a Black Mamba
tend to be small. The snake is extremely aggressive, striking rapidly and
accurately. Multiple bites inflicted by a single snake or by more than one
snake are clearly possible, and should be noted if present (See Special
Considerations below). The presence of fang marks does not always imply that
the injection or deposition of venom into the bite wound (envenomation)
actually occurred. The probability of dry bites (no venom injected) in Black
Mamba strikes, however, is small.
- Admit patient to an emergency or trauma service and call the consultant
identified by the Poison Control Center.
- Begin a peripheral intravenous infusion (16 gauge catheter) of Lactated
Ringers Solution at a rate of 250 cc/hour.
- Draw blood from the contralateral arm, and collect urine for the following
laboratory tests. Mark STAT.
- Type and Cross Match TWO units of Whole blood.
- CBC with differential and platelets.
- Coagulation Parameters:
- Prothrombin Time (PT)
- Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT)
- Fibrinogen levels
- Fibrin Degradation Products
- Serum Electrolytes, BUN/Creatinine, Calcium, Phosphorus.
- Lactate Dehydrogenase (with Isoenzyme analysis). Isoenzyme analysis may
indicate multiple targets of the venom components which may dictate further
- Urinalysis (Macroscopic and Microscopic Analysis). Must include analysis
- Urine Electrolytes and Creatinine
- Free Protein
- Electrocardiogram (Place the patient on continuous monitoring). Rapid
heart rate to be expected.
- Continuous Urine Output Monitoring (Indwelling Foley Catheter if
unconscious). Watch for possible oliguria or anuria.
- Additional Tests as needed or indicated by patient's hospital course.
- It may be necessary or practical to repeat some of the above serum and
urine tests periodically over the hospital course to monitor the effects of
antivenom therapy or to detect late changes in parametric
- OBSERVE PATIENT CLOSELY for signs and symptoms of envenomation which
usually manifest between 15 minutes and two hours following the bite.
- If NONE of the signs or symptoms have been noted after TWO hours, there is
the possibility that the patient received a dry bite (no venom injected).
- VERY SLOWLY begin to remove the bandages and splint watching carefully for
any changes in the patient's status. If any changes occur, assume the patient
has been envenomed and prepare to give antivenom immediately (as directed
- If signs and symptoms still fail to manifest, continue CLOSE observation of
the patient for an additional 24 hours.
- IF ANY SIGN OR SYMPTOM becomes apparent or has been noted during the course
of treatment, begin Antivenom Therapy as follows:
- Each vial of S.A.I.M.R. Polyvalent Antivenom is packaged as a
pepsin-digested purified liquid form, and is ready for immediate use.
- Secure Four vials (40 mls) immediately, and withdraw the contents into a
- Administer the undiluted Antivenom intravenously at a rate of 1 vial (10
mls) per minute.
- Should any signs of ALLERGY/ANAPHYLAXIS (e.g., coughing, dyspnea,
urticaria, itching, increased oral secretions, etc.) develop, immediately
discontinue the administration of antivenom, and treat symptoms with
Epinephrine, Steroids and Antihistamines. After the patient is stabilized,
continue injecting the remaining initial dose of antivenom at a slower rate, 1
vial (10 mls) per 5 minutes.
- After the first four vials (40 mls) of antivenom have been administered,
the splint and the bandages may be removed. This should be done VERY SLOWLY
over a period of FIVE minutes to prevent a bolus release of venom. If the
patient's condition WORSENS:
- Reapply the crepe bandage.
- Prepare an additional four vials of antivenom immediately as directed
- Deliver this dose intravenously at a rate of 1 vial (10 mls) per 5
- Release the bandage again slowly over 10 minutes.
- The patient should have received a total of 8 vials (80 mls) of antivenom
at this point.
- Antivenom Therapy is the mainstay of treatment for Black Mamba
envenomation. Many of the symptoms are ameliorated or entirely eliminated by
the antivenom alone. Other symptoms will require additional therapeutic
modalities. Local symptoms may take several days to weeks to completely
resolve; their progression, however, may be controlled with antivenom
- Neurological Symptoms (especially respiratory obstruction or failure) tend
to predominate the clinical picture in cases of Black Mamba envenomation, and
are usually the most immediate cause of dangerous problems. Often, these are
improved by the antivenom. If breathing becomes impaired, provide respiratory
assistance. Secretions may become copious necessitating suctioning or even
- Hematological symptoms may present as a Disseminated Intravascular
Coagulopathy, and are treated as are other DICs. This, however, is rare with
Black Mamba envenomation.
- Renal symptoms are uncommon in Black Mamba envenomation, but may complicate
the situation, and if severe (i.e., Acute Renal Failure) may necessitate
- If severe muscle or respiratory paralysis develops and persists, administer
0.6 mg of Atropine IV. Follow by giving 0.5 mg of Neostigmine IV every 30
minutes for a maximum of FIVE doses.
- It is important to keep venom neutralization current and continuous. The
best method to accomplish this is to keep a close watch on the patient's
status. If the present condition does not improve, or should it worsen for any
reason, additional antivenom should be administered. The antivenom should
always be given by intravenous infusion at a rate of ONE vial per 5 minutes.
Give all additional antivenom in unit (one vial) doses.
One should anticipate using (including the initial dose):
4-6 vials total for a minor bite with envenomation.
8-20 vials total may be necessary for moderate or severe bites.
- It is advisable to perform periodic serum and urine analyses during therapy
(as outlined above).
- It is always best to keep the patient in an Intensive Care setting until
free of major symptoms for 24 hours. The patient should be observed in the
hospital for at least 24 hours after symptoms are stabilized.
- It is important that the patient be placed at rest, kept warm, and avoid
- The onset of dangerous Neurotoxic symptoms can be rapid and
subtle. In addition, they are more rapidly reversed in their early stages than
when fully developed. It may be necessary to wake the patient and perform a
brief neurologic check every hour or so to assure that breathing and other
vital functions are not impaired. Carefully note the progress of any paralysis
which may be present.
- Respiratory obstruction and failure are the greatest immediate
concerns. Should the patient develop difficulties in breathing or airway
impairment, respiratory support will be required. If the tongue, jaw or
pharynx become paralyzed, insert an oral airway. Make sure adequate suction
equipment is available and operative.
- Fluid management is very important in snake bite cases. The patient
should be well hydrated, and a brisk urine output maintained. Blood
replacement SHOULD NOT be started until the circulating venom anticoagulants
have been fully neutralized.
- If any signs of Oropharyngeal paralysis or impaired swallowing
exist, give NOTHING BY MOUTH, and keep patient on his side with head down.
Watch for airway compromise and aspiration.
- Morphine is CONTRAINDICATED because of its tendency to suppress
respiration. Alcohol should also be avoided.
- In cases in which Circulatory shock remains uncorrected by antivenom
therapy, Plasma volume expanders and/or vasopressor agents may be given with
- Tetanus prophylaxis should be current.
- Antibiotics are NOT recommended prophylactically.
- Multiple Bites:
- It is possible for an Antinori's Black Mamba to deliver more than one bite
in a single attack, and thus may inject a larger volume of venom. If there is
evidence that such an attack occurred (i.e., history or multiple bite sites),
the INITIAL dose of antivenom should be 8 vials (80 mls) given by direct
intravenous infusion. Give the antivenom at a rate of 1 vial (10 mls) per 2
minutes. WATCH CLOSELY for signs of allergic response. Give all
subsequent antivenom doses in ONE vial increments at a rate of 1 (10 mls) vial
per 5 minutes as necessitated by the presence of continued signs and symptoms
- Severe Envenomation
- If the patient shows severe signs of envenomation, particularly if early
after the bite, up to 12 vials (120 mls) can be given as an INITIAL dose. Give
the antivenom by direct intravenous infusion at a rate of 1 vial (10 mls) per 2
minutes. Correct any adverse or allergic reactions with Corticosteroids,
Antihistamines and/or Epinephrine as indicated.
- Testing for Equine Protein Sensitivity:
- It is NOT ADVISABLE to utilize subcutaneous or intradermal testing for
sensitivity to equine products in that such testing may be unreliable, and may
unnecessarily delay antivenom therapy which must be used if any signs of Black
Mamba envenomation are present.
- If there is reason to believe that the patient may be sensitive to equine
protein products, the following may be performed:
- Administer 1 gram of Solumedrol I.V. push.
- Wait 10 minutes.
- Administer the antivenom by direct intravenous infusion at a rate of 1
vial (10 mls) per 5 minutes.
- Monitor Pulse and Blood Pressure carefully. Be prepared to treat for
Anaphylaxis with Epinephrine and other vasoactive
- Clinical Experience with Dendroaspis polylepis antinorii:
- This subspecies of Black Mamba has a restricted geographical range which is
sparsely inhabited by humans, and therefore, probably results in few bites
which reach clinical attention. Although specific cases involving Antinori's
Black Mamba have not been extensively documented, one would anticipate signs,
symptoms and a clinical course of envenomation to be at least as serious and
life-threatening as the significant number of annual envenomations and deaths
due to the common Black Mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis). Prompt
administration of S.A.I.M.R. Polyvalent Antivenom (or an equivalent Black
Mamba-specific antivenom) has resulted in remarkably rapid recovery in many
cases. Delay in administration or insufficient dosages of antivenom may allow
serious neurological symptoms and respiratory paralysis to manifest which may
be very difficult to reverse once established. Serious envenomations will
require full intensive care with supportive treatment as indicated. 4 to 10
vials of antivenom appears to be the average number used in most cases; up to
20 or more vials have been used in serious cases.
- In Africa, the Black Mambas are considered to be the most dangerous of
snakes, and are highly feared. In some studies, mortality has been as high as
100%; however, most of these cases involved bites which occurred in the field,
and in which administration of antivenom was unavailable, neglected or delayed.
Untreated Antinori's Black Mamba bites are likely to be fatal.
- Clinical differences between the common (Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis)
and Antinori's (Dendroaspis polylepis antinorii) Black Mambas have not been
described or recorded.
The following references are recommended for further indepth reading. This
material includes case histories, guidelines and recent findings in elapid
literature. These should be read only after treatment has begun, and the
patient is in stable status.
- South African Institute for Medical Research: Anti-Snakebite Serum.
(Package Insert with Antivenom), 1980.
- SAUNDERS, C.R.: Report on a Black Mamba Bite of a Medical Colleague. Cent.
Afr. J. Med., 26:121, 1980.
- BLAYLOCK, R.S.: (to the editor) Black Mamba Envenomation. S. Afr. Med. J.,
- CRISP, N.G.: (to the editor) Black Mamba Envenomation. S. Afr. Med. J.,
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